It’s scary to think that this time last year I was finishing my hsc and now I am finishing my first year of Uni. I have thoroughly enjoyed my university experience so far as I have met a lot of new people and learnt a lot of new things. However, now another session of blogging has come to an end. I have found the topics within this subject interesting as most of the topics we looked into I did not have any knowledge of prior to entering this subject.
Throughout this semester my favorite topics would have been hip hop as well as media capitals (my group presentation). Being a dancer and having an obsession with Kanye West I was fond of Hip Hop as because I have grown up around this topic I had a general understanding however I found it interesting looking deeper into the foundations and evolution of hip hop from then to now. Although our group found it hard to find a lot of information on media capitals as it is a tricky topic I found some of our findings fascinating especially in terms of reality television and just how many countries have their own version of Next Top Model. Not only were some of our findings unique I also was able to gain a better understanding of media capitals in terms of they exactly are, who Australia is dependent on and ultimately the future for media capitals and just who will obtain the power.
Overall BCM111 has furthered my understanding of International media and I have certainty gained a lot from taking this subject. I can’t say 8:30 tutorials will be greatly missed but it has been a great experience and I look forward to seeing what next semester holds.
Journalists should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information” according to the United States Society of Professional Journalists. The term false balance is the superficial balance that provides the audience with both sides of the story present. This can also be informational bias as journalists present a particular issue as being more balanced between opposing viewpoints. However just because it is stated that a report is balanced and provides equal information does not mean that both sides of the story are in fact equal or furthermore accurate.
Journalists have profound ethical responsibilities when covering stories and issues both expansive and critical, much like climate change. These journalists are not only reporting these concerns during a time where their own line of work is changing, but also during a time of profound global economic and financial uncertainty (Ward 2009). This type of uncertainty is compounded by the ongoing threats of divisive wars and terrorist activities, which in hand confounds journalist’s approach to these expansive and critical issues (Ward 2009).
What has been considered as a major challenge to the free flow of information, the commercialisation of media has resulted in news becoming a commercial product. As the concentration of media ownership is increasing, the level of freedom and independence of news and differing views is reducing. In some nations, powerful corporations are becoming major influences on mainstream media. This in particular has caused a reduction in diversity and depth in content that is being presented to mass audiences.
New values are considered to be common guidelines or criteria applied by media outlets in order for them to determine how much attention they will give to a particular story. They are in fact fundamental to understanding new production and the choices that editors and other journalists face when determining what is deemed to be newsworthy and what is not. There are seven news values which focus and direction information into appropriate categories these include: composition, continuity, cultural proximity, elite references, negativity, personalisation, rarity and relevance.
In the modern world media outlets all really just want to obtain audiences and therefore keep them entertained. In order to do so media outlets have turned to celebrities and their news as being the forefront of the media. However, this creates the criticism of news values as today the focus is on celebrity based news and quite often real world issues are overlooked simply because they are not seen as “entertaining” as hearing about somebody like Miley Cyrus twerk it.
Whether we choose to accept it or not celebrity news has in fact become an important feature of the media. What has been described as a major shift in contemporary journalism, celebrity news has transformed from an array of print and television outlets, into a category of content found across various media channels. The demand for celebrity news is constantly increasing; therefore media outlets will do whatever it takes to acquire the latest and most sensational story.
We live in a world that is evolving rapidly, so is the nature of film industries in terms of production and distribution. We now see the emergence of transitional film industries as a result of the shift in global film cultures, breaking down the traditional geographic barriers. Both transnational and global film industries are hybrids of numerous cultures, nations and creative minds, therefore producing a melting pot of representations and interpretations.
Due to an increase in number of films that attract international markets, films that are being produced can no longer be identified with a specific nation. Today films are shot in numerous countries, therefore mixing both local and global elements to appeal to audiences trends and tastes (Shaefer & Kara 2010). As well as this, film industries are also becoming more reliant on multinational cast and crew, and other resources available to them.
One example of a transnational film is ‘Slumdog Millionaire’. A movie set both set and filmed in India followed the story of a teenage boy who appears on “Who wants to be a Millionaire” – an American originated program, therefore Western. Western culture was evident in the film and it wanted to target Western audiences through references such as a classic tourist scene being shot at the Taj Mahal.’
Not only is the Indian film industry thriving off movies like Slumdog Millionaire but it is also inspiring top USA film directors to bring more of the Indian culture and experience into the western world of America.
“Asian film industries, particularly those of India and China will wrestle control of global film flows from Western dominace”. The film is a great illustration of the way in which India as well as China are challenging Hollywood’s current hegemony.
Media capitals are places where things come together and, consequently, where the generation and circulation of new mass culture forms become possible. They can also be considered as sites of mediation, locations where complex forces and flows interact (Curtin 2003).
Hollywood is seen as notorious in terms of being a media capital. It seems that to be considered a media capital, countries have to somehow in some way frame the United States in order to be successful. At the same time America has the ability to set it’s own agenda without the external forces of other nations.
However, it is now evident that the Hollywood is in competition with other nationals which has resulted in, not a massive declination, but a redirection of what type of media is consumed in certain nations. This shift could perhaps be due globalisation and a rise of multiculturalism within western nations, Hollywood now has to contend with other media capitals such as in Asia or India who can produce TV and film and distribute internationally at a cheaper price.
“ Such anxieties suggest how the geography of television is changing and how Hollywood’s status as a global media capital remains, but the conditions of its dominance have been altered dramatically.” – Curtin 2003.
Oprah Winfrey a media goddess is an example of an American network that lost it’s notoriety. The OWN premiered on the first of January 2011 with approximately 80 million viewers, replacing the Discovery Health Channel. In the first week it was watched by an average of 505, 000 viewers. The channel was to undergo a major overhaul as by May 2012 the channels losses were estimated to be $330 million. So why did it fail?
Many fans of Oprah or there attraction to her is the intimacy she has with her audiences, treating the audience as friends .People enjoyed the intimacy that they got having one hour of there day with Oprah. By creating a network of shows that did not feature Oprah herself broke the intimacy and ultimately the connection between home viewers and her causing a decline in popularity. Oprah is an American icon therefore if there such a decline amongst her network what does this imply about the status of Hollywood as a whole.
Curtin believes that Hong Kong is now considered as the greatest TV and film influence in China. Due to it’s population shows obviously reach larger audiences then they would in Hollywood. It can be believed that because of this one day Hollywood will accept a greater amount of global influence into its own media production, allowing the true global potential of media to be recognised.
Hip hop can be defined as the culture of form of ground breaking music and self expression. Hip hop has a variety of genres as well as the four main elements including DJing, MCing, Breaking and Graffiti. To the average person hiphop is considered entertainment or a form of art however to others it is so much more . Hip hop is an evolving spirit and consciousness of urban youth that keeps reacting itself in a never ending cycle.
What once originated in African and African-American culture, hip-hop has evolved into a global phenomenon as it has spread across national, cultural, ethnic and linguistic boundaries. The globalisation of hip-hop not only highlights how quickly things can spread, but also how technological advances have created new circulation channels for music production.
According to April Henderson’s ‘Dancing Between Islands: Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora’, the Samoan involvement in street dance and music in California significantly impacted Samoan cultural production in other places where Samoans had settled such as New Zealand. For many hip-hop artists in New Zealand, the connections with America, particularly California, brought popping, locking, breaking and the music back home to them. These forms of California street dance were travelling quickly, as Samoans were popping and locking on the streets of California, their cousins back home began to mimic their moves and therefore learn the art.
Today, rappers and hip hop artists are believed to portray self- degrading images of themselves and due to their song lyric and music videos. An example of an Artist is Nicki Minaj who have brought a new dynamic such as provocative dance movements have taken hip hop to a whole new level. Hip hop is no longer an art form for the expression of culture and emotion. Through the use of violence, sex, wealth, power and egos within in hip hop in particular music videos it appears hip hop has taken a step back and those who were once able to voice opinions are no longer able to.
Coming from a traveling family for the last 17 years I have traveled overseas almost every year in particularly to America and refer to it as my home away from home. After the lecture it occurred to me that I live a very Americanized life this ranges from my food preferences, music and television taste, aspirations and more. Now that’s not to say that I have lost touch with my own culture I’m very much an Australian, I will eat vegemite on anything put in front of me and am sometimes referred to as a “bogan”.
America is considered the super power in its dominance in culture. Australian news is very much American inclined. The same can be said about our consumer habits through recognizable and popular brands such as Nike and Apple that are now considered within our culture as bandwagons.
Western Culture’s social norms, values, customs and beliefs have been adopted around the world by cultures who in the process have lost their own. The Global Village is a term coined by Marshall Mcluhan that describes a world that has been “shrunk” by modern advances in technology. Mcluhan linked the vast network of communication systems to one extended central nervous system, ultimately linking everyone in the world.
As Australian do not display interest in Australian television Americans also do the same, thus British television series such as Skins and The Office are popular in the states. Currently we see the resurgence of British Pop culture. Through the emergence of 1 Direction a band that has captured the hearts of “twelvies” around the globe we see a lot less of artists such as Bieber. Most recently we were bombarded in with information on a daily basis as to the birth of Prince George of the royal family, suddenly the media shifted from an American overload within our media to British.
Gloablisation in a variety of ways can be seen as empowering however it can also be dis- empowering by the consumer and producer.